Mao Zedong: Biography and Story the Founding Father of the People’s Republic of China

Profile and biography of Mao Zedong. He is the first president and founder of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) or China. He was also the first leader of the Chinese Communist Party, which is now in power.

In China, Mao Zedong is known as the Great Leader. He and his Party revolutionized the Chinese government and culture, which has become one of the world’s strongest and most developed countries.

Mao Zedong Biography

Mao Tse Tung, or Mao Zedong, was born on December 26, 1893, in the Xiangtan region, China. He was born into a poor farming family. Since childhood, Mao had to work hard and live a concerned life. Even though his family’s economic situation improved later in life, the hardships in his childhood had a big impact on his later life.

As a child, Mao was sent to study at an elementary school. His education as a child also included the teachings of Confucian classics. But at 13, his father told him to stop attending school and sent him to work in the fields.
Mao rebelled and was determined to complete his education, so he was determined to run away from home and continue his education elsewhere.

In 1905, he took the state examination, which at that time began to eradicate old Confucianism and replaced it with Western-style education.

Involved in the Xinhai Revolution

This marked the beginning of intellectual uncertainty in China. In 1911, Mao was involved in the Xinhai Revolution, a revolution against the Qing Dynasty that resulted in the collapse of the Chinese empire, which had ruled for more than 2000 years since 221 BC.

In 1912, Sun Yat Sen proclaimed the Republic of China, and China officially entered the republican era. Mao then continued his schooling and studied many things, including Western culture. In 1918, he graduated from Beijing University and studied there. There, he would meet the Marxist founders of the CCP.

Founded the Mao Party

Mao’s Party was founded in 1921, and Mao became more and more vocal day by day. Between 1934 and 1935, he played a major role and led the Chinese Red Army on the “Long March.” Then, since 1937, he helped fight the Dai Nippon Army, which occupied much of China.

Finally, World War II ended, and civil war flared again. In this war against the nationalists, Mao became the leader of the Reds and finally won in 1949. On October 1, 1949, the People’s Republic of China was proclaimed, and the nationalist Chinese leader, Chiang Kai Shek, fled to Taiwan.

In the CCP, Mao himself, since 1943, was chairman of the party secretariat and Politburo, but in fact, he controlled the entire Party until he died in 1976. The leadership may not have been as vulgarly cruel as Stalin’s, but the violence of his policies and his stubborn behavior brought the Chinese people down to ruin. And incredible misery. Stay up-to-date with Deltsapure! Provide accurate and updated news for readers.

Mao Zedong Thought

Mao was not an original philosopher. His ideas were based on the thoughts of other fathers of socialism, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Lenin, and Stalin.

However, Mao Zedong’s thinking was more about dialectical materialism, which is the basis of socialism, and the application of these ideas in practice, as done by Mao, can be said to be original. Mao can also be said to be a Chinese philosopher who had the greatest influence in the 20th century.

Mao’s most important philosophical concept is conflict. According to him: “Conflict is universal and absolute; it exists in the development process of all things and permeates all processes from beginning to end.”
Karl Marx’s history model is also based on the principle of conflict: the oppressing class and the oppressed class, capital, and work are in eternal conflict. This will eventually lead to a crisis, and the workers will win.

Ultimately, this new situation will lead to another crisis, but logically, all the final processes, according to Mao, will bring us to a stable and harmonious balance.

Mao came to believe that all conflicts are universal and absolute; in other words, they are eternal. Mao’s concept of conflict is similar to the concept of yin-yang philosophy. It all sounds like a religious dogma. Below is an excerpt of his thoughts on conflict.

In science, everything is divided based on certain conflicts inherent in each research object. Conflict is the basis of a form of scientific discipline.

Mao Zedong’s examples regarding ‘conflict’ in different disciplines were taken from Lenin. Some analogies are appropriate, but others are not.
Mao’s opinion becomes even more doubtful when he says these ‘conflicts’ are the ‘essence’ of the scientific discipline. Negative and positive numbers are not the essence of mathematics, nor are metaphysics and dialectics the essence of philosophy.

Mao was educated, and his obsession with conflict can explain his wrong understanding.

This obsession also influenced his political decisions, as will be explained below. The concept of Yin Yang also influenced Mao Zedong’s philosophical views.

Mao’s second important concept is his concept of knowledge, which he also took from Marxism. Mao argued that knowledge is a continuation of experience in the physical realm and that experience is the same as involvement.

If you seek knowledge, then you must engage with changing circumstances. If you want to know how guava tastes, it must be changed by eating it.

If you want to know the structure of an atom, then you have to carry out physical and chemical experiments to change the state of this atom. If you want to know the theory and methods of revolution, then you have to follow it. All true knowledge arises from direct experience.

Only after one gained experience could one leap forward. After that, the knowledge is put into practice again, allowing someone to gain experience again,

Here it is shown that Mao not only knew Marxism but also neo-Confucianism, as stated by Wang Yangmin, who lived in the 15th to 16th centuries.

Mao Zedong’s Political Policy

Mao distinguished two types of conflict: antagonistic conflict and non-antagonistic conflict. According to him, antagonistic conflicts can only be resolved by fighting, while non-antagonistic conflicts can be resolved by discussion.

According to Mao, the conflict between workers and workers and capitalists is antagonistic, while the conflict between the Chinese people and the Party is non-antagonistic.

In 1956, Mao introduced a new political policy in which intellectuals were allowed to express their opinions as a compromise against the Party, which suppressed it because it wanted to avoid cruel oppression accompanied by the motto: “Let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred different minds compete.”

Mao Zedong’s Revolution

Ironically, this political policy failed: the intellectuals felt dissatisfied and issued many criticisms. Mao himself argued that they had betrayed him and he was taking revenge.

Mao Zedong’s leadership style was almost the same as that of communist leaders such as Stalin or Lenin, who tended to ‘purge’ anyone considered to be obstructing the revolution.

Around 700,000 members of the intelligentsia were arrested and forced to work in rural areas. Mao believed in an eternal revolution. He also believed that every revolution must produce counter-revolutionaries.
Therefore, he regularly eradicated and arrested what he considered his political opponents and traitors or counter-revolutionaries.

The most dramatic and heartbreaking event was the Cultural Revolution that occurred in 1966. In the 1960s, students worldwide enjoyed rebelling against what they considered The Establishment or the ruling class, likewise in China.

The difference is that they were supported by their lecturers and Party officials, including Mao himself in China. The students and lecturers set up the so-called Red Guard, a paramilitary unit.

Equipped with Mao’s Red Book, they attacked the lackeys of capitalism Western influences, and other counter-revolutionaries.

As an example of their fanaticism, they, among other things, refuse to stop on the highway when the red light is on because they believe that the color red, which is a symbol of socialism, cannot possibly mean something is stopping.

So, the members of the Red Guard in 1966 were so blind in eradicating the counter-revolutionaries that the Chinese state was in a very precarious condition and almost destroyed; the economy was not working.

Finally, Mao was forced to deploy the People’s Liberation Army to deal with them and stem their fanaticism. The result was a civil war that only ended in 1968.

Ma Zedong’s next strategy in 1958 launched the Great Leap Forward, which reorganized rural areas.

Everywhere, village associations (communes) were founded. Economically, it turns out this all failed. It is estimated that nearly 20 million Chinese people died in vain at that time.

Founder of the People’s Republic of China

Since Mao proclaimed it in 1949, the People’s Republic of China has not been recognized by the United States. The United States continues to recognize the Nationalist Republic of China, which since 1949 has only controlled the island of Formosa or Taiwan and its surroundings.

China, which since the founding of the UN in 1945 has been a permanent member of the Security Council along with the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union (Russia) as the winner of World War II, is still represented as well.

The only representative is the nationalist government, which currently governs Taiwan alone. This was strange because mainland China, which at that time had a population of approximately 800 million people, was not represented at the UN; it represented only Taiwan, which had a population of perhaps 10 million.

So at the end of the 1960s, the president of the United States, Richard Nixon, began to approach the People’s Republic of China, and finally, with the approval of the Soviet Union, the PRC became a member of the UN Security Council starting in 1972 and replaced Taiwan.

Mao Zedong Dies

On September 9, 1976, Mao Zedong died. The cause of Mao Zedong’s death was Parkinson’s disease. Mao last appeared in public in May on May Day in 1971

The last wish of China’s first president was to be buried. However, Mao Zedong’s body was not buried but only embalmed or preserved. Mao Zedong’s body is now in the Mao Zedong Mausoleum, also known as the Chairman Mao Memorial Hall.

After the death of Mao Zedong, the People’s Republic of China became more open. Normalization of diplomatic relations with Indonesia was also realized in 1992. At this time, China emerged as a giant that had just woken up from its sleep and rapid economic growth.

China could even surpass Russia in its development. What is being debated now is whether this could all be achieved thanks to Mao’s services or because his influence was already thin.

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